Pat (pas) Israel (Hebrew: פת ישראל) is Jewish Supervision including the lighting of the oven flames which are restricted from being lit by gentiles. Many observant Jews are relaxed in this restriction.
The flip side of the term is Pas Nochri (Hebrew: פת נכרי) or Pat Akkum (Hebrew: פת עכו”ם) which is a bread (some says cookies) made from the five grain, baked by a non-Jew.
הלכות מאכלות אסורות – איסור פת נכרי ומהו פת ישראל
Laws of forbidden foods – prohibition of non-kosher foods and the prohibition of Non-Pat-Israel
During the times of Chazal, it was common for non-Jews to pour wine libations as a means of serving idols. Such wine is called yayin nesech (Hebrew: יין נסך), and a Jew may not derive any benefit from this wine. Due to this concern, Chazal enacted a gezeira (decree) which forbade the use of any wine which has been poured by a non-Jew, whether or not it was intended as a form of idol worship. This wine is known as stam yeinom.
An Eruv usually refers to citywide or neighbourhood symbolic enclosure which allows Jews carry objects on Sabbath is if was in there private domain. There are structural limitation where an Eruv can exist such as place where 600000 people pass by.
Do you have Jewish roots? Are you an Ashkenazi or Sephardic? Are you a Levi or a Cohen? My jewish test is very simple. No, I am not speaking about the law of “You are a Jew if your mother is Jewish”. If you like Bamba and malt beer (Birah Shchora) – You are Jewish 🙂
Judaism is passed on exclusively through the biological female line. This means that if you trace your Jewish lineage through your mother’s mother’s mother’s mother (etc.), you are Jewish, even if all other branches of your family are not Jewish.
More ways to know
DNA test – A DNA test provides you with clear evidence of whether you have Jewish roots according to the science but not according to Jewish law. Based on your specific genetic characteristics, some companies like iGENEA can identify whether you are of Jewish descent, which line the Jewish descent is from (paternal, maternal or both lines) and even to what percentage you are Jewish. In addition, your profile is compared with more than 700,000 people in their database.
Book – get a book from your local library or buy one on Amazon or here.
Community – If you have been living as a Jew as part of the Jewish community for your whole life (as has your biological family for as long as anyone knows), it is safe to assume that you are Jewish. The same would apply to someone who either converted or is the direct descendant of a (female) convert.
Take The Test
Being Jewish have no meaning if you’re not practicing Judaism. All it takes is 10 questions. Good luck: Jewish IQ >>
Friday, May 13, 2005 – For the first time, the IDF/AF is dispatching fighter jets to Canada to participate in the Maple Flag exercises which will take place May 15-June 24. They will have 10 F-16s and about 150 air crew in Alberta.
The Israeli air force confirmed that it had accepted a Canadian invitation to participate in the annual war games and was sending F-16 Fighting Falcons there. The move follows a policy by the IAF to participate in more international air exercises. The IAF has trained with the Italian, Romanian, German, Polish and Turkish air forces. It has also said it will hold a joint exercise with the Indians, but no date has been set.
Reports from Canada said that the IDF/AF was sending 10 F-16s and about 150 air crew to Alberta.
More than 5,000 military personnel from 11 nations and a NATO Airborne Early Warning and Control (AWACS) contingent will participate in exercise Maple Flag XXXVIII. In addition, seven nations will observe the exercise as part of the International Observer Program (IOP). The exercise stretches over three two-week periods through May and June:
Period 1: 15 May – 27 May
Period 2: 29 May – 10 June
Period 3: 12 June -24 June
Maple Flag XXXVIII “Blue Air” Friendly Forces
The following forces are scheduled to participate in this year’s air combat exercise as “Blue Air.” They will deploy to provide conventional ground attack, air superiority, SEAD (suppression of enemy air defence), tactical resupply, reconnaissance, air-to-air refueling, and AWACS (airborne early warning and control):
Belgian Air Force
German Air Force
French Air Force
Israeli Air Force
NATO AWACS (airborne early warning and control contingent)
The following forces are scheduled to participate in this year’s coalition exercise as “Red Air.” They will deploy to provide air and ground threat:
14 CTS (United States Air Force)
64th AGRS (United States Air Force aggressor squadron)
266th Range Squadron (United States Air National Guard)
A number of Arab countries have been invited, but none is sending active aircraft. Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which is currently receiving the F-16 Block 60, are sending observers.
Maple Flag XXXVIII Observing Nations
The following nations are sending military members who will observe but not participate in the exercise:
United Arab Emirates
The Cold Lake range spreads across more than 11,000 sq.km. of northern Alberta bush land. With civilian traffic banned from the area, military pilots have free rein to practice combat skills.
The range contains dozens of mock targets for planes to attack, including airfields, industrial complexes and military installations.
A number of different combat and combat support aircraft will be participating in this year?s exercise, including: Mirage F-1 and Mirage 2000N, F-15 Eagle and F-15E Strike Eagle, F-16 Fighting Falcon, CF-18 Hornet, EA-6B Prowler, Tornado GR4, B-1B Lancer, E-3 Sentry AWACS, Transall C-160, C-130 Hercules, B-707.
Exercise Maple Flag is a Canadian variation of the United States Air Force Red Flag exercise, held several times a year at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada. Both exercises were developed in response to a Vietnam War finding that 90 percent of aircraft losses took place during the first ten combat missions. Aircrew who survived these critical first ten missions were more likely to survive the remainder of their combat tour.
The IDF/AF has long been a participant in the US Red Flag exercise.